Authoring PipelineRun

Authoring PipelineRuns in .tekton/ directory #

  • Pipelines-as-Code will always try to be as close to the tekton template as possible. Usually you will write your template and save them with a .yaml extension and Pipelines-as-Code will run them.

  • The .tekton directory must be at the top level of the repo. You can reference YAML files in other repos using remote URLs (see Remote HTTP URLs for more information), but PipelineRuns will only be triggered by events in the repository containing the .tekton directory.

  • Using its resolver Pipelines-as-Code will try to bundle the PipelineRun with all its Task as a single PipelineRun with no external dependencies.

  • Inside your pipeline you need to be able to check out the commit as received from the webhook by checking it out the repository from that ref. Most of the time you want to reuse the git-clone task from the tektoncd/catalog.

    To be able to specify the parameters of your commit and URL, Pipelines-as-Code allows you to have those “dynamic” variables expanded. Those variables look like this {{ var }} and those are the one you can use:

    • {{event_type}}: The event type (eg: pull_request or push).
    • {{git_auth_secret}}: The secret name auto generated with provider token to check out private repos.
    • {{pull_request_number}}: The pull or merge request number, only defined when we are in a pull_request event type.
    • {{repo_name}}: The repository name.
    • {{repo_owner}}: The repository owner.
    • {{repo_url}}: The repository full URL.
    • {{revision}}: The commit full sha revision.
    • {{sender}}: The sender username (or accountid on some providers) of the commit.
    • {{source_branch}}: The branch name where the event come from.
    • {{source_url}}: The source repository URL from which the event come from (same as repo_url for push events).
    • {{target_branch}}: The branch name on which the event targets (same as source_branch for push events).
    • {{target_namespace}}: The target namespace where the Repository has matched and the PipelineRun will be created.
  • For Pipelines-as-Code to process your PipelineRun, you must have either an embedded PipelineSpec or a separate Pipeline object that references a YAML file in the .tekton directory. The Pipeline object can include TaskSpecs, which may be defined separately as Tasks in another YAML file in the same directory. It’s important to give each PipelineRun a unique name to avoid conflicts. Duplicate names are not permitted.

Matching an event to a PipelineRun #

Each PipelineRun can match different Git provider events through some special annotations on the PipelineRun. For example when you have these metadatas in your PipelineRun:

    name: pipeline-pr-main
 annotations: "[main]" "[pull_request]"

Pipelines-as-Code will match the pipelinerun pipeline-pr-main if the Git provider events target the branch main and it’s coming from a [pull_request]

Multiple target branch can be specified separated by comma, i.e:

[main, release-nightly]

You can match on pull_request events as above, and you can as well match pipelineRuns on push events to a repository

For example this will match the pipeline when there is a push to a commit in the main branch :

  name: pipeline-push-on-main
  annotations: "[refs/heads/main]" "[push]"

You can specify the full refs like refs/heads/main or the shortref like main. You can as well specify globs, for example refs/heads/* will match any target branch or refs/tags/1.* will match all the tags starting from 1..

A full example for a push of a tag :

 name: pipeline-push-on-1.0-tags
 annotations: "[refs/tags/1.0]" "[push]"

This will match the pipeline pipeline-push-on-1.0-tags when you push the 1.0 tags into your repository.

Matching annotations are currently mandated or Pipelines-as-Code will not match your PipelineRun.

If there are multiple pipelinerun matching an event, it will run all of them in parallel and posting the results to the provider as soon the PipelineRun finishes.

Advanced event matching #

If you need to do some advanced matching, Pipelines-as-Code supports CEL filtering.

If you have the annotation in your PipelineRun, the CEL expression will be used and the on-target-branch or on-target-branch annotations will then be skipped.

This example will match a pull_request event targeting the branch main coming from a branch called wip: |
            event == "pull_request" && target_branch == "main" && source_branch == "wip"

Another example, if you want to have a PipelineRun running only if a path has changed you can use the .pathChanged suffix function with a glob pattern. Here is a concrete example matching every markdown files (as files who has the .md suffix) in the docs directory : |
            event == "pull_request" && "docs/*.md".pathChanged()

This example will match all pull request starting with the title [DOWNSTREAM]: |
            event == "pull_request && event_title.startsWith("[DOWNSTREAM]")

The fields available are :

  • event: push or pull_request
  • target_branch: The branch we are targeting.
  • source_branch: The branch where this pull_request come from. (on push this is the same as target_branch).
  • target_url: The url of the repository we are targeting.
  • source_url: The url of the repository where this pull_request come from. (on push this is the same as target_url).
  • event_title: Match the title of the event. When doing a push this will match the commit title and when matching on PR it will match the Pull or Merge Request title. (only GitHub, Gitlab and BitbucketCloud providers are supported)
  • .pathChanged: a suffix function to a string which can be a glob of a path to check if changed (only GitHub and Gitlab provider is supported)

Compared to the simple “on-target” annotation matching, the CEL expression allows you to complex filtering and most importantly express negation.

For example if I want to have a PipelineRun targeting a pull_request but not the experimental branch I would have : |
            event == "pull_request" && target_branch != experimental"

You can find more information about the CEL language spec here :

Using the temporary GitHub APP Token for GitHub API operations #

You can use the temporary installation token that is generated by Pipelines as Code from the GitHub App to access the GitHub API.

The token value is stored into the temporary git-auth secret as generated for private repositories in the key git-provider-token.

As an example if you want to add a comment to your pull request, you can use the github-add-comment task from the Tekton Hub using a pipelines as code annotation: "github-add-comment"

you can then add the task to your tasks section (or finally tasks) of your PipelineRun :

  - name:
        name: github-add-comment
        - name: REQUEST_URL
          value: "{{ repo_url }}/pull/{{ pull_request_number }}"
        - name: COMMENT_OR_FILE
          value: "Pipelines-as-Code IS GREAT!"
          value: "{{ git_auth_secret }}"
          value: "git-provider-token"

Since we are using the dynamic variables we are able to reuse this on any PullRequest from any repositories.

and for completeness, here is another example how to set the GITHUB_TOKEN environment variable on a task step:

  - name: GITHUB_TOKEN
        name: "{{ git_auth_secret }}"
        key: "git-provider-token"
  • On GitHub apps the generated installation token will be available for 8 hours
  • On GitHub apps the token is scoped to the repository the event (payload) come from unless configured it differently on cluster.

Example #

Pipelines as code test itself, you can see the examples in its .tekton repository.

Calendar September 13, 2023
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